By 2030, every country in the world should achieve a better and more sustainable future through the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. The SDGs are the blueprint that will address global challenges that every nation is facing, including poverty, inequality, climate change, and peace and justice. Each goal is connected with another target and the UN asserted that it is important to achieve all of them by the given deadline in order to leave no one behind.
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By 2030, the UN plans to eradicate extreme poverty for everyone in the world. It aims to lift half of the population from indigence and implement nationwide social protection systems for all. The organization also seeks to provide equal rights to economic resources, access to basic services, ownership, and control over various forms of property.
Part of the plan is to build the resilience of the poor and those living in vulnerable situations, as well as reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related events and other economic, social, and environmental disasters.
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The second SDG seeks to end hunger, ensure that all people—particularly the poor—have access to food and that no one is in a state of malnutrition. Doubling the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers are also part of the targets, along with establishing sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices.
Goal 2 target also includes maintaining the genetic diversity of crops and domesticated animals and their wild domesticated animals. There is also a plan to increase investment in rural infrastructure, research, extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock banks to improve agricultural productive capacity in developing countries.
The UN seeks to correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in the agricultural markets while also adopting measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity industries and facilitate timely access to market information.
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GOOD HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
This goal seeks to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for everyone by reducing the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births. By 2030, the UN targets to end preventable deaths of newborns and children 5years old as well as epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases, among others.
The organization also aims to strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse (including the use of narcotic drugs and alcohol abuse), reduce the number of global deaths and injuries due to traffic accidents, premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, and ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services.
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Children of both sexes should have equal and free access to early childhood development, care, and pre-primary education up to the secondary level for effective learning outcomes as well as technical, vocational, and tertiary education for all.
Goal 4 includes increasing the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, eliminate the gender gap in education, improve literacy and numeracy, and ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development.
The UN also plans to build and upgrade education facilities to make them safe for all and even expand the number of scholarships available to developing countries. Increasing the number of qualified teachers is also among the Goal 4 targets.
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The UN is looking to end all forms of discrimination, violence, and harmful practices against women and girls by 2030. It aims to recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work as well as ensure women have equal opportunities and participation for leadership at all levels.
Part of the SDG is to guarantee universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights, undertake reforms to provide women with equal rights to economic resources and various forms of property and promote women empowerment through enhanced use of enabling technology.
Adopting and strengthening sound policies and legislation are also steps to be taken in promoting gender equality and women's empowerment.
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WATER AND SANITATION
The SDG aims to provide universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene for all while ending open defecation with the focus on the needs of all women, girls, and those who are living in vulnerable situations.
Reducing pollution, eliminating dumping, and minimizing the release of dangerous materials are also part of Goal 6 to improve water quality. By 2030, the UN seeks to increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and implement integrated water resources management at all levels.
To do so, the organization will protect and restore water-related ecosystems, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support in water- and sanitation-related activities, and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.
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In the next 11 years, the UN is hoping to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters through the integration of climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning.
The organization is also looking to boost education, raise awareness, and increase human and institutional capacity on mitigating and adapting to the climate crisis while also reducing its impact.
Another target is to ensure that developing countries are pushing through with their commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to mobilize a joint $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the nations’ needs in meaningful mitigation actions.