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What are the Different Kinds of Mood Disorders?

patient who displays any kind of symptoms which are associated with mood disorder could be diagnosed with depression/ Photo By Luca Bertolli via 123RF

 

Mood swings happen most commonly with females who are experiencing discomfort because of their menstrual period. Women also have occasional mood swings because of their hormones, making them feeling irritable and grumpy. However, there is a fine line between having a hormonal surge that causes mood swings and having mood disorders which could be very alarming since it may cause disruptive and erratic behaviors that could harm other people when things go out of hand.

 

Meanwhile, mood swings could also just a part of the premenstrual syndrome. Healthline posted on their website that the increase of hormones during the premenstrual stage on women could cause mood swings, anxiety, and irritability, which are almost similar to the symptoms that lead to having a mood disorder. Experts also clarified that PMS is a normal and common condition and its symptoms affect 85% of menstruating women.

 

According to Very well Mind, the term mood disorder is used by behavior experts in identifying all types of depression and bipolar disorders which affects the mood. The patient who displays any kind of symptoms which are associated with mood disorder could be diagnosed with depression or manic behavior which displays extremely high or irritable behavior. Mood disorders could also have an effect on the mood and other bodily functions which could affect the lifestyle of the person.

Researchers also recently discovered that people who are diagnosed with mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder have a larger size of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain which controls the stress level of a person. Using a high-resolution 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner the researchers focused on the brain images obtained from 40 patients who have major depressive disorders. “We observed that this brain region is enlarged in people with depression as well as in those with bipolar disorder, two types of affective disorders,” said researcher Stephanie Schindler, a Ph.D. student from Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany.  

 

Types of mood disorders

 

According to the new update of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) in 2013, mood disorders are now categorized and separated into bipolar disorder and depressive disorders where there is an alarming number of diagnosed patients in this generation. More people are now being brave and unashamed to admit that they are diagnosed with a mood disorder since they believe that coming out of the curtain could raise an awareness which could make other normal people see that having a mood disorder such as bipolar and depressive disorder is real and it should be more taken seriously.

mood disorders are now categorized and separated into bipolar disorder and depressive disorders/ Photo By Alena Ozerova via 123RF

 

Serious mood shifts can threaten a person’s well-being which is why patients should consult a medical professional in order to prevent having a major impact on their lifestyle. People with bipolar disorder experiences highs and lows which are becoming more intense and longer-lasting than usual mood swings and they could spend several days being the life of the party; racing around, talking fast, not sleeping much, and doing destructive things like running through the family’s bank account and sometimes they also experience the manic phase where they could hear voices in their heads.

 

On the other hand, the major depressive disorder is also known as clinical depression. The person who is diagnosed with clinical depression could have their lows and feel okay eventually. But unlike bipolar disorder, they won’t feel any manic highs.  Depression is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how the person feels, think and act. It causes feelings of sadness and loss of interest in activities which could also lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems which decreases the person’s ability to function and work and at home.

 

The new three disorders

 

Furthermore, the new update on mood disorders also introduced new mood disorder which is now included in the DSM-V. It includes Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is defined as a severe and disabling form of the premenstrual syndrome which affects 3-8% of menstruating women. This disorder consists of a “cluster of affective, behavioral, and somatic symptoms” that recur monthly during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The exact pathogenesis of the disorder is still unclear and is an active research topic and the treatment of PMDD relies largely on antidepressants that modulate serotonin levels in the brain via serotonin reuptake inhibitors as well as ovulation suppression using contraception.

 

On the other hand, persistent depressive disorder, also known as dysthymia is a long-term form of depression and just like the depression symptoms, people who are diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder might lose interest in daily normal activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, and have low self-esteem and might feel an overall feeling of inadequacy. However, these feelings might burden the person for years and could interfere with their relationships, school, work, and other daily activities.

 

Lastly, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a childhood condition of extreme irritability, anger, and frequent, intense temper outbursts. The symptoms could go beyond a being a “moody” child where the child who has DMDD experience severe impairment which requires clinical attention.                

 

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