Nosebleeds have been said to be the one of the most common emergencies for the EENT (Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat) reported in the hospital, authors of the article Nosebleed (Epistaxis) Ayesha Tabassom and Julia Cho wote. According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, this is a common occurrence among children ages two to 11 and among adults ranging from ages 50 to 80.
The Mayo Clinic states that even though it makes an individual apprehensive, it is only a minor inconvenience and not a cause for alarm. They also add that frequent nosebleeds are those that happen more than once a week.
In the following sections, the definition the categories and the treatment for epistaxis will be presented.
Definition of Epistaxis
Epistaxis or more commonly known as nosebleed is, as rightdiagnosis.com has stated, the discharge of blood from the nose.
Kinds of Epistaxes
1. Anterior Nosebleed
According to entnet.org, this of nosebleed is one that happens at the front of the nose. Usually, they start with the blood only flowing out from one nostril when the person is sitting or standing.
They often occur during dry climates or during dry winter months. This heat causes the nasal membranes to lose moisture. The dryness in these membranes can lead to crusting, cracking and bleeding.
2. Posterior Nosebleed
On the other hand, a posterior nosebleed is the type of epistaxis that starts in the higher and deeper parts of the nose which flow to the back of the mouth and throat, whether the person is sitting or standing.This is identified to be a more severe but rather rare phenomena. Consultation of a health professional may be needed.
There is more possibility of this occurrence when an individual is lying down and coughing or blowing the nose. The posterior nosebleed is more frequent in people who have nose and face injuries as well as the older people who have high blood pressure.
Based on Medical News Today’s and etnet.org’s researches, here are the causes of nosebleeds:
1. Dry climate
Dry air makes the delicate skin the nose more likely to crack.
2. Colds and allergies
This is due to repeated sneezing and nose-blowing.
Also, when the nostrils are blocked by the mucus inside, this can cause the blood vessels within the nose to widen which can possibly injure the nose.
3. Exposure to chemicals
Airborne chemicals in pollution or at work can cause irritation or damage to one’s nose.
Smoking is said to have a similar effect.
4. Frequent alcohol intake
Alcohol can hinder the blood clotting and may also cause an enlargement of the blood cells within the nostrils which also makes a person more susceptible to injury.
Some medicines can also intervene with blood clotting.
6. Allergies, infections or dryness
This may make the nose itch, prompting the person to pick their nose.
7. Using extreme force in nose-blowing
This affects the blood cells within the nose.
This is more common among older patients and smokers
9. Fractures of the nose or the base of the skull
Head injuries may also prompt nosebleeds.
10. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
This is a disorder that involves a blood vessel growing as large as a birthmark behind the nose.
Stopping an Anterior Nosebleed
To explain how to stop an anterior nosebleed, etnet.org advises to:
1. First, calm down.
2. Keep the head higher than the heart.
3. Lean slightly forward to prevent it from flowing to the throat.
4. Gently blow the clotted blood out of the nose and use a nasal decongestant.
5. Pinch the soft part of the nose with the thumb and the index finger.
6. Stay in the same position for five minutes. If it still persists, continue for ten more minutes.
According to Medical News Today, here are some measures you take to prevent a nosebleed from happening:
- Put petroleum or nasal gel inside the nose before sleeping.
- Avoid picking the nose.
- Stop smoking.
- Use a humidifier during winter
- Utilize protective equipment at work so that they may not inhale harmful chemicals.
In addition, they say that a person suffering from a nosebleed may also take the medicines listed below as part of their prevention:
To conclude, he picking of the nose or blowing it are the most common causes as well as extreme dryness of the weather. Frequent touching the nose is discouraged, especially if a person has long fingernails. If the hands or fingers come in contact with the nose frequently, this may it more prone to bleeding. Using humidifiers to keep the air cool as well as taking medication is also recommended.
When a sudden nosebleed occurs, one must not panic. If it happens to a child they are with, they must assist them and manage the epistaxes calmly. They must follow the correct procedures to stop the nose from bleeding. If the the bleeding still recurrs, it would be best to consult a doctor.